Today, our amazing National anthem was Sung for the first time today at National assembly. So, this post about it.
Vande Mataram (Bengali script: বন্দে মাতরম্, Devanagari: वन्दे मातरम्) – Vande Mātaram – literally – “I praise thee, Mother” – is a poem from Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay’s 1882 novel Anandamath. It was written in Bengali and Sanskrit.
It is a hymn to the Mother Land. It played a vital role in the Indian independence movement, first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
In 1950 (after India’s independence), the song’s first two verses were given the official status of the “national song” of the Republic of India, distinct from the national anthem of India, Jana Gana Mana.
The two verses of Vande Mataram adopted as the “National song” read as follows:
||Bengali phonemic transcription
vande mātaramsujalāṃ suphalāṃmalayajaśītalāmśasya śyāmalāṃmātaramvande mātaram
Here are the rest of the original lyrics from which the National Song of India came (continuing from the last section):
সুখদাং বরদাং মাতরম্৷৷
অবলা কেন মা এত বলে!
তুমি বিদ্যা তুমি ধর্ম্ম
তুমি হৃদি তুমি মর্ম্ম
ত্বং হি প্রাণাঃ শরীরে৷
বাহুতে তুমি মা শক্তি,
হৃদয়ে তুমি মা ভক্তি,
তোমারই প্রতিমা গড়ি মন্দিরে মন্দিরে৷
ত্বং হি দুর্গা দশপ্রহরণধারিণী
सुहासिनीं सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदां वरदां मातरम्।। १।। वन्दे मातरम्।
अबला केन मा एत बले।
बहुबलधारिणीं नमामि तारिणीं
रिपुदलवारिणीं मातरम्।। २।।
तुमि विद्या, तुमि धर्म
तुमि हृदि, तुमि मर्म
त्वम् हि प्राणा: शरीरे
बाहुते तुमि मा शक्ति,
हृदये तुमि मा भक्ति,
तोमारई प्रतिमा गडि
त्वम् हि दुर्गा दशप्रहरणधारिणी
सुजलां सुफलाम् मातरम्।। ४।।
धरणीं भरणीं मातरम्।। ५।।
Here is the translation in prose of the above two stanzas rendered by Aurobindo Ghose. This has also been adopted by the Government of India’s national portal. The original Vande Mataram consists of six stanzas and the translation in prose for the complete poem by Shri Aurobindo appeared in Karmayogin, 20 November 1909.
Apart from the above prose
translation, Sri Aurobindo
also translated Vande Mataram
into a verse
form known as Mother, I Salute to Thee
commented thus on his English translation of the poem:
||It is difficult to translate the National Song of India into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness, simple directness and high poetic force.
Chatterjee wrote the poem in a spontaneous session using words from Sanskrit
. The poem was published in Chatterjee’s book Anandamatha
in Bengali) in 1882, which is set in the events of the Sannyasi Rebellion.
Jadunath Bhattacharya was asked to set a tune for this poem just after it was written.
was the national cry for freedom [from British rule] during the Indian independence movement
. Large rallies, fermenting initially in Bengal
, in the major metropolis of Calcutta
, would work themselves up into a patriotic fervour by shouting the slogan “Vande Mataram”, or “Hail to the Mother(land)!” The British, fearful of the potential danger of an incited Indian populace, at one point banned the utterance of the motto in public forums, and imprisoned many freedom fighters
for disobeying the proscription. Rabindranath Tagore sangVande Mataram
in 1896 at the Calcutta
Congress Session held at Beadon Square. Dakhina Charan Sen sang it five years later in 1901 at another session of the Congress at Calcutta
. Poet Sarala Devi Chaudurani sang the song in the Benares
Congress Session in 1905. Lala Lajpat Rai
started a journal called Vande Mataram
. Hiralal Sen
made India’s first political film in 1905 which ended with the chant. Matangini Hazra
‘s last words as she was shot to death by the Crown police
were Vande Mataram
In 1907, Bhikaiji Cama
(1861–1936) created the first version of India’s national flag (the Tiranga
) in Stuttgart
, Germany, in 1907. It hadVande Mataram
written on it in the middle band.
A book titled Kranti Geetanjali
published by Arya Printing Press Lahore
and Bharatiya Press Dehradun
in 1929 contains first two stanzas of this lyric on page 11
as Matra Vandana
and a ghazal (Vande Mataram) composed by Bismil was also given on its back i.e. page 12.
The book written by the famous martyr
Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil
was proscribed by the then British government
The designation as “national song” predates independence, dating to 1937. At this date, the Indian National Congress discussed at length the status of the song. It was pointed out then that though the first two stanzas began with an unexceptionable evocation of the beauty of the motherland, in later stanzas there are references where the motherland is likened to the Hindu goddess Durga
. Therefore, INC decided to adopt only the first two stanzas as the national song.
The controversy becomes more complex in the light of ]]’s rejection of the song as one that would unite all communities in India. In his letter to Subhas Chandra Bose
(1937), Tagore wrote:
In a postscript to this same letter, Tagore says:
||…The composition consisting of words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations as the Government may authorise as occasion arises, and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honored equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it. (Applause) I hope this will satisfy members. (Constituent Assembly of India, Vol. XII, 24-1-1950)
More On Today
The Victoria Memorial (Victoria Memorial Hall) was first inaugrated today, which is a large marble building in Kolkata (Calcutta), West Bengal, India which was built between 1906 and 1921. It is dedicated to the memory of Queen Victoria (1819–1901) and is now a museum and tourist destination under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture. The Memorial lies on the Maidan (grounds) by the bank of the Hooghly river, near Jawaharlal Nehru road.
- “Let us, therefore, have a building, stately, spacious, monumental and grand, to which every newcomer in Calcutta will turn, to which all the resident population, European and Native, will flock, where all classes will learn the lessons of history, and see revived before their eyes the marvels of the past.”
The Prince of Wales, later King George V, laid the foundation stone on 4 January 1906 and it was formally opened to the public in 1921. In 1912, before the Victoria Memorial was finished, King George V announced the transfer of the capital of India from Calcutta to New Delhi. Thus, the Victoria Memorial was built in what would be a provincial city rather than a capital.