Aryabhata : India’s first satellite

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Aryabhata was India’s first satellite, named after a Great Indian astronomer of the same name.


Launch
It was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975 from Kapustin Yar using a Kosmos-3M launch vehicle. It was built by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to gain experience in building and operating a satellite in space. The launch came from an agreement between India and the Soviet Union directed by U.R. Rao and signed in 1972. It allowed the USSR to use India ports for tracking ships and launching vessels in return for launching India satellites.

On 19 April 1975, the satellite’s 96.46-minute orbit had an apogee of 611 kilometres (380 mi) and a perigee of 568 kilometres (353 mi), at an inclination of 50.6 degrees. It was built to conduct experiments in X-ray astronomy, aeronomics, and solar physics. The spacecraft was a 26-sided polyhedron 1.4 metres (4.6 ft) in diameter. All faces (except the top and bottom) were covered with solar cells. A power failure halted experiments after four days and 60 orbits with all signals from the spacecraft lost after five days of operation. According the Soviet media reports, the satellite continued to function and transmit information for some time. The satellite reentered the Earth’s atmosphere on 11 February 1992.

Legacy
1984 USSR stamp featuring Bhaskara-I, Bhaskara-II and Aryabhata satellites
The satellite’s image appeared on the reverse of Indian 2 rupee banknotes between 1976 and 1997 (Pick catalog and one rupee note number: P-79a-m).

Aryabhata was named for the 5th century astronomer and mathematician from India by the same name.

Some Details About Aryabhata : India’s First indigenously built Satellite Launched into Space

Mission type         Astrophysics
Operator                 ISRO
COSPAR ID         1975-033A
SATCAT №         7752
Mission duration 4 days achieved
Spacecraft properties
Launch mass         360 kg (794 lb)[1]
Power                 46 watts
Start of mission
Launch date         19 April 1975, 07:30 UTC[2]
Rocket                 Kosmos-3M
Launch site         Kapustin Yar 107/2
End of mission
Last contact         24 April 1975
Decay date         11 February 1992
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime                 Low Earth
Perigee                 568 kilometres (353 mi)
Apogee                 611 kilometres (380 mi)
Inclination         50.6 degrees
Period                 96.46 minutes
Epoch                 19 May 1975